Database Normalization: Explain 1NF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF With Examples + PDF: The purpose of normalization is to make the life of users easier. Insertion, Updation and Deletion Anamolies are very frequent if database is not normalized. To understand these anomalies let us take an example of a Student . A relation is said to be in 2NF, if it is already in 1NF and each and every In the 3NF example,Stud_ID is super-key in Student_Detail relation.

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Normalization is a database design technique which organizes tables in a manner that reduces 1nd and dependency of data. It divides larger tables to smaller tables and links them using relationships.

Later he joined with Raymond F. Boyce to develop the theory of Boyce-Codd Normal Form. For example, there are discussions even on 6 th Normal Form. The evolution of Normalization theories is illustrated below- Database Normalization Examples – Assume a video library maintains a database of movies rented out. Without any normalization, all information is stored in one table as shown below. Here you see Movies Rented column has multiple values. Each record needs to be unique. A KEY is a value used to identify a record in a table uniquely.

A KEY could be a single column or combination of multiple columns Note: Columns in a table that are NOT used to identify a record uniquely are called non-key columns.

What is a Primary Key? A primary is a single column value used to identify a database record uniquely. It has following attributes A primary key cannot be NULL A primary key value must be unique The primary key values cannot be changed The primary key must be given a value when a new record is inserted.


What is Composite Key? A composite key is a primary key composed of multiple columns used to identify a record uniquely In our database, we have two people with the same name Robert Phil, but they live in different places. Hence, we require wirh Full Name and Address to identify a record uniquely. That is a composite key. We have divided our 1NF table into two tables viz.

Table 1 and Table2.

Table 1 contains member information. Table 2 contains information on movies rented. It helps connect your Tables A foreign key can have a different name from its primary key It ensures rows in one table have corresponding rows in another Unlike the Primary key, exa,ple do not have to be unique.

DBMS Normalization: 1NF, 2NF, 3NF and BCNF with Examples

Suppose an idiot inserts a record in Table B such as You will only be able to insert values into your foreign key that exist in the unique key in the parent table. This helps in referential integrity.

What are transitive functional dependencies? A transitive functional dependency is when changing a non-key column, might cause any of the other non-key columns to change Consider the table 1. Changing the non-key column Full Name may change Sxample. There are no transitive functional dependencies, and hence our table is in 3NF In Table 3 Salutation ID is primary key, and in Table 1 Salutation ID is foreign to witn key in Table 3 Now our little example is at a level that cannot further be decomposed to attain higher forms of normalization.

In fact, it is already in higher normalization forms. Separate efforts for moving into next levels of normalizing data are normally needed in complex databases.

DBMS Normalization: 1NF, 2NF, 3NF and BCNF with Examples

However, we will be discussing next levels of normalizations in brief in the following. Sometimes is BCNF is also referred as 3. That’s all to Normalization!!! Summary Database designing is critical to the successful implementation of a database management system that meets the data requirements of an exanple system.


Normalization helps produce database systems that are cost-effective and dith better security models. Functional dependencies are a very important component of the normalize data process Most ezample systems are normalized database up to the third normal forms. A primary key uniquely identifies are record in a Table and cannot be null A foreign key helps connect table and references a primary key.

In this tutorial, you are going to see the detailed description on how to iwth and execute the In the daily use of SQLite, you will need some administrative tools over your database. Accounting Business Analyst Cloud Computing.

Ethical Hacking Informatica Jenkins. Database Normalization Examples – Assume a video library maintains a database of movies rented out.

Before we proceed let’s understand a few things — What is a KEY?

We have again divided our tables and created a new table which stores Salutations. Even when a database is in 3 rd Normal Form, still there would be anomalies resulted if it has more than one Candidate Key. Foreign Key references the primary key of another Table!

Most often they aren’t Foreign keys can be null even though primary keys can not.